When it comes to specific types of diet and nutrition, it turns out that few people know such words as fructarianism and pescatarianism, but almost everyone has heard of vegetarians and vegans. We are going to talk about the latter in this article. Although the concept of veganism is not new, it has gained popularity with the turn of the century. Surprisingly, in the past five years, internet searches for the word 'vegan' have increased by more than 250 per cent. Celebrities such as Hollywood actors and popular singers going vegan have played a part, and a growing range of vegan options on the shelves is more and more common than ever. Below we look at the history of veganism, its basic principles and the pros and cons.
History and basic principles of veganism
Although veganism has been practiced since before the 1940s, the most accurate definition of this type of eating and living was not introduced until 1949, when Leslie Day Cross proposed "a way to free animals from human exploitation". The term 'vegan' itself was coined by Donald Watson. Later, the meaning of his statement was further elaborated as "a desire to end man's use of food, goods, labour, hunting and all other animal-related products and activities". When the Vegan Society became a registered charity in 1979, they updated the definition. In their understanding veganism is a philosophy and way of life that seeks to eliminate, as far as possible and practicable, all forms of exploitation and cruelty to animals, preventing their use as food, clothing materials and for other purposes.
Veganism entails developing and using alternatives to animal products for the benefit of people, animals and the environment. Veganism is therefore not only a particular diet that excludes certain foods, but also a way of life, a particular philosophy that embraces all aspects of life. Vegans not only do not eat animals, they do not allow themselves to exploit them for their own needs, and do not buy clothes, bags, shoes and other objects made from animal materials (leather, wool, etc.).
Permitted and prohibited foods in veganism
There are several varieties of vegan diets, of which the most popular are:
Bio-based vegan diet: a type of diet that includes a wide variety of plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds;
Rawfood vegan diet: A diet based on eating fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds and other plant foods cooked at temperatures below 48° C;
80/10/10: a raw vegan diet that limits plants rich in fat, such as nuts and avocados, and relies mainly on raw fruit and herbs. Its other name is low-fat vegan diet or fructorianism;
Starch Power: A low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet that focuses on foods containing starch (potatoes, rice and corn);
Raw foods before 4pm: a vegan diet inspired by the above two. Raw foods are eaten until 4pm; a vegetable dish is allowed for dinner;
Vegan diet based on "junk food": a diet based not on organic products but on industrial and homemade preparations that mimic the taste of meat, cheeses, desserts, etc.